Letter to George Washington
On Paine's Services to Amerca
[1796 / Part 2 of 2]
Was it by entering into a treaty with England to surrender French
property on board American ships to be seized by the English, while
English property on board American ships was declared by the French
treaty not to be seizable, that the bonds of friendship between
America and France were to be drawn the closer?
Was it by declaring naval stores contraband when coming to France,
while by the French treaty they were not contraband when going to
England, that the connection between France and America was to be
Was it by opening the American ports to the British navy in the
present war, from which ports the same navy had been expelled by the
aid solicited from France in the American war (and that aid
gratuitously given) that the gratitude of America was to be shown, and
the solicitude spoken of in the letter demonstrated?
As the letter was addressed to the Committee of Public Safety, Mr.
Washington did not expect it would get abroad in the world, or be seen
by any other eye than that of Robespierre, or be heard by any other
ear than that of the Committee; that it would pass as a whisper across
the Atlantic, from one dark chamber to the other, and there terminate.
It was calculated to remove from the mind of the Committee all
suspicion upon Jay's mission to England, and, in this point of view,
it was suited to the circumstances of the movement then passing; but
as the event of that mission has proved the letter to be hypocritical,
it serves no other purpose of the present moment than to show that the
writer is not to be credited.
Two circumstances serve to make the reading of the letter necessary
in the Convention. The one was that they who succeeded on the fall of
Robespierre found it most proper to act with publicity; the other, to
extinguish the suspicions which the strange conduct of Morris had
occasioned in France.
When the British treaty, and the ratification of it by Mr.
Washington, was known in France, all further declarations from him of
his good disposition as an ally and friend passed for so many ciphers;
but still it appeared necessary to him to keep up the farce of
declarations. It is stipulated in the British treaty that
commissioners are to report at the end of two years on the case of
neutral ships making neutral property. In the meantime,
neutral ships do not make neutral property, according to the British
treaty, and they do according to the French treaty.
The preservation, therefore, of the French treaty became of great
importance to England, as by that means she can employ American ships
as carriers, while the same advantage is denied to France. Whether the
French treaty could exist as a matter of right after this clandestine
perversion of it could not but give some apprehensions to the
partisans of the British treaty, and it became necessary to them to
make up, by fine words, what was wanting in good actions.
An opportunity offered to that purpose. The Convention, on the public
reception of Mr. Monroe, ordered the American flag and the French
flags to be displayed unitedly in the hall of the Convention. Mr.
Monroe made a present of an American flag for the purpose. The
Convention returned this compliment by sending a French flag to
America, to be presented by their Minister, Mr. Adet, to the American
Government. This resolution passed long before Jay's Treaty was known
or suspected: it passed in the days of confidence; but the flag was
not presented by Mr. Adet till several months after the treaty had
been ratified. Mr. Washington made this the occasion of saying some
fine things to the French Minister; and the better to get himself into
tune to do this he began by saying the finest things of himself.
Born, Sir (said he), in a land of liberty; having early learned its
value; having engaged in a perilous conflict to defend it; having, in
a word, devoted the best years of my life to secure its permanent
establishment in my own country; my anxious recollections, my
sympathetic feelings, and my best wishes are irresistibly excited,
whenever, in any country, I see an oppressed people unfurl the banner
Mr. Washington, having expended so many fine phrases upon himself,
was obliged to invent a new one for the French, and he calls them "wonderful
people!" The coalesced powers acknowledged as much.
It is laughable to hear Mr. Washington talk of his sympathetic
feelings, who has always been remarked, even among his friends, for
not having any. He has, however, given no proofs of any to me. As to
the pompous encomiums he so liberally pays to himself, on the score of
the American Revolution, the reality of them may be questioned; and
since he has forced them so much into notice, it is fair to examine
A stranger might be led to suppose, from the egotism with which Mr.
Washington speaks, that himself, and himself only, had generated,
conducted, completed, and established the Revolution: in fine, that it
was all his own doing.
In the first place, as to the political part, he had no share in it;
and, therefore, the whole of that is out of the question with respect
to him. There remains, then, only the military part; and it would have
been prudent in Mr. Washington not to have awakened inquiry upon that
subject. Fame then was cheap; he enjoyed it cheaply; and nobody was
disposed to take away the laurels that, whether they were acquired or
not, had been given.
Mr. Washington's merit consisted in constancy. But constancy was the
common virtue of the Revolution. Who was there that was inconstant? I
know but of one military defection, that of Arnold; and I know of no
political defection among those who made themselves eminent when the
Revolution was formed by the Declaration of Independence. Even Silas
Deane, though he attempted to defraud, did not betray.
But when we speak of military character, something more is to be
understood than constancy; and something more ought to be understood
than the Fabian system of doing nothing. The nothing part can be done
by anybody. Old Mrs. Thompson, the housekeeper of headquarters (who
threatened to make the sun and the wind shine through Rivington of New
York), could not have done it as well as Mr. Washington. Deborah would
have been as good as Barak. [James Rivington
was a Tory publisher whose press was destroyed in 1775 by a contingent
of the Sons of Liberty in Connecticut - Editor]
Mr. Washington had the nominal rank of Commander-in-Chief, but he was
not so in fact. He had, in reality, only a separate command. He had no
control over, or direction of, the army to the northward under Gates,
that captured Burgoyne; nor of that to the South under Nathaniel
Greene, that recovered the Southern States. The nominal rank, however,
of Commander-in-Chief served to throw upon him the lustre of those
actions, and to make him appear as the soul. and center of all
military operations in America.
He commenced his command June, I775, during the time the
Massachusetts army lay before Boston, and after the affair of Bunker
Hill. The commencement of his command was the commencement of
inactivity. Nothing was afterwards done, or attempted to be done,
during the nine months he remained before Boston.
If we may judge from the resistance made at Concord, and afterwards
at Bunker Hill, there was a spirit of enterprise at that time, which
the presence of Mr. Washington chilled into cold defense. By the
advantage of a good exterior he attracts respect, which his habitual
silence tends to preserve; but he has not the talent of inspiring
ardor in an army. The enemy removed from Boston in March, I776, to
wait for reinforcements from Europe, and to take a more advantageous
position at New York.
The inactivity of the campaign of 1775, on the part of General
Washington, when the enemy had a less force than in any other future
period of the war, and the injudicious choice of positions taken by
him in the campaign of 1776, when the enemy had its greatest force,
necessarily produced the losses and misfortunes that marked that
gloomy campaign. The positions taken were either islands or necks of
land. In the former, the enemy, by the aid of their ships, could bring
their whole force against a part of General Washington's, as in the
affair of Long island; and in the latter, he might be shut up as in
the bottom of a bag.
This had nearly been the case at New York, and it was so in part; it
was actually the case at Fort Washington; and it would have been the
case at Fort Lee, if General Greene had not moved precipitately off,
leaving everything behind, and by gaining Hackensack bridge, got out
of the bag of Bergen Neck.
How far Mr. Washington, as general, is blamable for these matters, I
am not undertaking to determine; but they are evidently defects in
military geography. The successful skirmishes at the close of that
campaign (matters that would scarcely be noticed in a better state of
things) make the brilliant exploits of General Washington's seven
campaigns. No wonder we see so much pusillanimity in the President,
when we see so little enterprise in the General!
The campaign of 1777 became famous, not by anything on the part of
General Washington, but by the capture of General Burgoyne, and the
army under his command, by the Northern Army at Saratoga, under
General Gates. So totally distinct and unconnected were the two armies
of Washington and Gates, and so independent was the latter of the
authority of the nominal Commander-in-Chief, that the two generals did
not so much as correspond, and it was only by a letter of General
(since Governor) Clinton, that General Washington was informed of that
event. The British took possession of Philadelphia this year, which
they evacuated the next, just time enough to save their heavy baggage
and fleet of transports from capture by the French Admiral d'Estaing,
who arrived at the mouth of the Delaware soon after.
The capture of Burgoyne gave an eclat in Europe to the American arms,
and facilitated the alliance with France. The eclat, however, was not
kept up by anything on the part of General Washington. The same
unfortunate languor that marked his entrance into the field, continued
always. Discontent began to prevail strongly against him, and a party
was formed in Congress, while sitting at York Town, in Pennsylvania,
for removing him from the command of the army. The hope, however, of
better times, the news of the alliance with France, and the
unwillingness of showing discontent, dissipated the matter.
Nothing was done in the campaigns of 1778, 1779, I780, in the part
where General Washington commanded, except the taking of Stony Point
by General Wayne. The Southern States in the meantime were over-run by
the enemy. They were afterwards recovered by General Greene, who had
in a very great measure created the army that accomplished that
In all this General Washington had no share. The Fabian system of
war, followed by him, began now to unfold itself with all its evils;
but what is Fabian war without Fabian means to support it? The
finances of Congress, depending wholly on emissions of paper money,
were exhausted. Its credit was gone. The Continental Treasury was not
able to pay the expense of a brigade of wagons to transport the
necessary stores to the army, and yet the sole object, the
establishment of the Revolution, was a thing of remote distance. The
time I am now speaking of is in the latter end of the year 1780.
In this situation of things it was found not only expedient, but
absolutely necessary, for Congress to state the whole case to its
ally. I knew more of this matter (before it came into Congress or was
known to General Washington), of its progress, and its issue, than I
choose to state in this letter. Colonel John Laurens was sent to
France as an envoy extraordinary on this occasion, and by a private
agreement between him and me I accompanied him. We sailed from Boston
in the Alliance frigate, February 11, 1781. France had already done
much in accepting and paying bills drawn by Congress. She was now
called upon to do more.
The event of Colonel Laurens' mission, with the aid of the venerable
Minister, Franklin, was that France gave in money, as a present, six
millions of livres, and ten millions more as a loan, and agreed to
send a fleet of not less than thirty sail of the line, at her own
expense, as an aid to America. Colonel Laurens and myself returned
from Brest the first of June following, taking with us two millions
and a half of livres (upwards of one hundred thousand pounds sterling)
of the money given, and convoying two ships with stores.
We arrived at Boston the twenty-fifth of August following. De Grasse
arrived with the French fleet in the Chesapeake at the same time, and
was afterwards joined by that of Barras, making thirty-one sail of the
line. The money was transported in wagons from Boston to the bank at
Philadelphia, of which Mr. Thomas Willing, who has since put himself
at the head of the list of petitioners in favor of the British treaty,
was then president. And it was by the aid of this money, and this
fleet, and of Rochambeau's army, that Cornwallis was taken; the
laurels of which have been unjustly given to Mr. Washington. His merit
in that affair was no more than that of any other American officer.
I have had, and still have, as much pride in the American Revolution
as any man, or as Mr. Washington has a right to have; but that pride
has never made me forgetful whence the great aid came that completed
the business. Foreign aid (that of France) was calculated upon at the
commencement of the Revolution. It is one of the subjects treated of
in the pamphlet "Common Sense," but as a matter that could
not be hoped for, unless independence was declared. The aid, however,
was greater than could have been expected.
It is as well the ingratitude as the pusillanimity of Mr. Washington,
and the Washington faction, that has brought upon America the loss of
character she now suffers in the world, and the numerous evils her
commerce has undergone, and to which it is yet exposed. The British
Ministry soon found out what sort of men they had to deal with, and
they dealt with them accordingly; and if further explanation was
wanting, it has been fully given since, in the sniveling address of
the New York Chamber of Commerce to the President, and in that of
sundry merchants of Philadelphia which was not much better.
When the Revolution of America was finally established by the
termination of the war, the world gave her credit for great character;
and she had nothing to do but to stand firm upon that ground. The
British Ministry had their hands too full of trouble to have provoked
a rupture with her, had she shown a proper resolution to defend her
rights. But encouraged as they were by the submissive character of the
American Administration, they proceeded from insult to insult, till
none more were left to be offered. The proposals made by Sweden and
Denmark to the American Administration were disregarded. I know not if
so much as an answer has been returned to them.
The Minister penitentiary (as some of the British prints called him),
Mr. Jay, was sent on a pilgrimage to London to make up all by penance
and petition. In the meantime the lengthy and drowsy writer of the
pieces signed CAMILLUS held himself in reserve to vindicate
everything; and to sound in America the tocsin of terror upon the
inexhaustible resources of England. Her resources, says he, are
greater than those of all the other powers. This man is so intoxicated
with fear and finance that he knows not the difference between plus
and minus - between a hundred pounds in hand and a hundred pounds
worse than nothing.
The commerce of America, so far as it had been established by all the
treaties that had been formed prior to that by Jay, was free, and the
principles upon which it was established were good. That ground ought
never to have been departed from. It was the justifiable ground of
right, and no temporary difficulties ought to have induced an
abandonment of it. The case is now otherwise. The ground, the scene,
the pretensions, the everything, are changed. The commerce of America
is, by Jay's Treaty, put under foreign dominion. The sea is not free
for her. Her right to navigate it is reduced to the right of escaping;
that is, until some ship of England or France stops her vessels, and
carries them into port. Every article of American produce, whether
from the sea or the sand, fish, flesh, vegetable, or manufacture, is,
by Jay's Treaty, made either contraband or seizable. Nothing is
In all other treaties of commerce, the article which enumerates the
contraband articles, such as firearms, gunpowder, etc., is followed by
another article which enumerates the articles not contraband: but it
is not so in Jay's Treaty. There is no exempting article. Its place is
supplied by the article for seizing and carrying into port; and the
sweeping phrase of "provisions and other articles" includes
everything. There never was such a base and servile treaty of
surrender since treaties began to exist.
This is the ground upon which America now stands. All her rights of
commerce and navigation are to begin anew, and that with loss of
character to begin with. If there is sense enough left in the heart to
call a blush into the cheek, the Washington Administration must be
ashamed to appear. And as to you, Sir, treacherous in private
friendship (for so you have been to me, and that in the day of danger)
and a hypocrite in public life, the world will be puzzled to decide
whether you are an apostate or an impostor; whether you have abandoned
good principles, or whether you ever had any.
to PART 1